Saturday, June 6, 2020

The doctrine of direct effect has been fundamentally undermined by the Court of Justice - Free Essay Example

Introduction The European Court of Justice (ECJ) devised the direct effect doctrine to give international treaties EU legal effect. The doctrine permits individuals to rely on European law in proceedings taken against EU Member States. This paper discusses selected direct effect cases decided since the seminal ECJ Van Gend en Loos decision to highlight persistent direct effect ambiguities and contradictions. Suggested law reforms are also provided in the Conclusion. Historical Background In Van Gend en Loos, the ECJ determined it did not have jurisdiction to decide whether international law can override domestic law. The Treaty was only intended for interstate compliance; direct effect is contrary to such intention. The ECJ decided that EU treaties must promote a community not only of states but also of persons, [requiring] participation of all persons, with community law [intended] to confer upon individuals any rights which form part of their legal heritage. In Van Gend en Loos, the ECJ explains direct effect principles as (i) subject measure must be clear; (ii) unconditional; (iii) require no additional implementation measures; (iv), State or institutional discretion is not permitted. Directives may have vertical or horizontal effect. Vertical direct effect permits enforcement against a Member State, where horizontal effect is individual citizen enforcement against another. There have been contradictory applications of both the horizontal and vertical direct effect. In Van Duyn, the ECJ found direct effect where the State obligations were sufficiently clear to assessed by a court. In contrast, Ratti provided that a similar directive only operated directly when the implementation date had passed; indirect effect applied to bypass this outcome. Regulations also may have horizontal and direct effects. Their implementation date does not hinder their operation, as Article 288 provides regulations have (i) general application, as (ii) binding and directly applicable in all Member States. This approach is confirmed in Commission v Italy, where regulations were not to be subject to additional implementation requirements. Ambiguous Application of the Doctrine The issue of the legality of horizontal direct effects has attempted to be bypassed in various cases. In Von Colson, the ECJ avoided it by finding that domestic law should be interpreted harmoniously with international law, or as close as reasonably practicable. If application of the law would lead to the substantially the same Directive outcome, the ECJ will look at whether the horizontal direct effect should be allowed, and labelled this the indirect effect. This idea was supported in later cases, for example in Marleasing, where the ECJ decided that domestic laws enacted before or after the Directive would nevertheless require implementation, even if national law does not relate to the Directive and is not enacted to specifically implement it. The doctrine also allows remedies for individuals in situations where a State has not appropriately implemented laws to properly reflect the Directive as the EU intended it to be applied. It is the responsibility of the Member State to certify that its institutions, authorities and court systems are following the rules of the Directive, therefore domestic courts can be sure the laws are applied to reflect their intended meaning. Discerning the intended meaning is difficult, as the ECJ often will not recognise a horizontal effect expressly, only impliedly by permitting a ruling to bypass the intention of the Directive by overriding the conflicting domestic legislation. This means a Directive can disapply a domestic law, permitted in CIA Securities v Signalson, where particular provisions in Belgium were found invalid as they did not properly follow the Directive. Conflicting Judicial Approaches The ECJ has creatively used methods to either ensure the doctrine can be applied. For instance, in the Foster case, the court formulated a reverse vicarious liability decision. This was used to find subsidiaries of the Member State responsible for failures of the domestic legislature, which becomes confusing given that at the same time, a private citizen also does not influence the implementation of a Directive but cannot be found liable. Contrastingly, in Ratti, the ECJ applied estoppel to hold a State liable and obliged to give effect to the Directive appropriately, because if this does not occur, citizens cannot rely on it at a domestic level. The State which does not correctly give effect to it is committing an equitable wrong against individuals. Complications also become evident in Marshall and Defrenne (No 2). In Marshall, the ECJ held a Directive only bind Member States, and invalidated any horizontal direct effect. However, in Defrenne, it held that Article 157, directed a t Member States, could also be applied horizontally against individuals. As mentioned, the Van Duyn case caused ambiguity as the ECJ found that Article 45 could be directly effective yet did not meet the requirement of being unconditional, because the power of the Member States was regulated judicial control. However, since no treaty has ever been found to not be regulated by judicial control, the Van Duyn case therefore removed the limitation of unconditionality. The second requirement of clarity was applied flexibly in Defrenne (No 2), as the court held that Article 157 was directly effective due to its dual meaning, the first being a general interpretation based on a mere aspiration of gender equality, the second being a specific restriction disallowing unequal remuneration in the workforce. The ruling in Marshall has caused the most controversy in recent times, as the court held that Directives will only have a direct effect on Member States and not in litigation between p rivate individuals. However, the ECJ then used various methods to avoid its own ruling, allowing Directives to have a de facto effect with the same outcome. Additionally, the ECJ interprets Member States inconsistently to allow them to be subject to vertically effective Directives in some situations and not others. This was shown in Foster v British Gas, where the court held an authority in any legal form with the duty of providing any public service under control of the State held powers beyond regular rules imposed on individuals and hence would be bound by unimplemented Directives. Recent Commentary Developing from the original restrictions imposed in Van Gend en Loos, various approaches have been adopted by the courts. Academic commentary posits that European law must become less influential and permit domestic courts to have more discretion in the event of conflicting national law, especially if the provisions in question are from local constitutions. To begin, there are established criteria to be met before any EU legislative provision can take a direct effect, which is carried forward from the original decision in Van Gend en Loos. The second point developed from the Marshall case it that the Directives can only legally have a vertical direct effect; the horizontal effect is allowed impliedly on some occasions. Problematically, legislation in Member States do not contain any guiding regulations on these limitations, possibly due to the ongoing inconsistent approach taken by the ECJ. However it should be noted that the first type of restriction has been flexibly applied rec ently and the Van Gend en Loos principles are less strict, while still broadly applied. Considering the doctrine beyond the level of Member States has also led to inconsistencies with application to individual citizens. For example, obligations are often imposed to restrict individuals through use of the de facto horizontal direct effect, such as free-market regulations, although these were never intended by parliament apply to private individuals. The case of Alemo-Herron outlined this problem, where the ECJ addressed a Directive on transferring of undertakings contained in Article 16 of the Charter which permits free formulation of contracts while conducting business. The interpretation under international law overruled that of the domestic application of contractual freedom Academics say this unfair application should be avoided, and greater domestic judicial discretion permitted by mandating a margin to favour local courts who are applying the EU law if the international appl ication will adversely affect fundamental rights. Conclusion The ECJ doctrine of direct effect has applied inconsistently and ambiguously at various times by the Court. These inconsistencies have led to the doctrine being legitimately critiqued as a political tool to strengthen the power of European Union laws over sovereignty in the domestic sphere. It has led to ongoing problems within the judicial system deriving from the criteria of Van Gend en Loos, which saw the ECJ bypass specific discussions by State Representatives stating they did not intend for the Treaty to be distinguished from other international treaties, and did not accept that it should provide rights to citizens to enforce at a domestic level either. There is now apparent ongoing ECJ application of de facto rules that conflict with national legislation, where inconsistent circumventions sanctioned by the ECJ do not uphold the objective of international courts to prevent application of a horizontal effect. By removing the original restrictions on the doctrine, the local c ourt system may be given more discretion to apply provisions fairly between individuals and Member States, and a flexible approach will allow the doctrine to be used for the benefit of both individuals and organisations seeking effective enforcement. Cases CIA Security International SA v Signalson SA and Securitel Sprl [1996] ECR 1-2202. Costa v. E.N.E.L. [1964] ECR 1141. Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) [1976] ECR 455 Foster and Others v British Gas plc [1990] ECR I-3313. Francovich and Bonifaci v Italy [1991] ECR I-5357. Marshall v Southampton and South-West Hampshire Area Health Authority (Teaching) [1986] ECR 723 NV Algemene Transporten Expeditie Onderneming van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen [1963] ECR 1. Publico Ministero v Tullio Ratti [1979] ECR 1629. Van Duyn v Home Office [1974] ECR 1337. Von Colson and Kamann v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen [1984] ECR 1891. References Betlem, G. The principle of indirect effect of community law, ERPL, 1995, Vol. 3, Issue 1. Betlem, G. and Nolkaemper, A. Giving Effect to Public International Law and European Community Law before Domestic Courts. A Comparative Analysis of the Practice of Consistent Interpretation, European Journal of International Law, 2003, Vol. 14. Chalmers, D., Davies, G. and Monti, G. European Union Law (2nd ed., Cambridge University Press: 2010). Craig, P. and de Burca, G. European Union Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (5th ed., Oxford University Press: 2011). Mastroianni, R. On the distinction between vertical and horizontal direct effect of derivatives: what role for the principle of equality?, 1999, EPL, Vol. 5, pp. 417-38. Nolkaemper, A. Revisiting Van Gend En Loos, Jean Monnet Working Paper 06/14, New York School of Law, 2014, available online at: Robin-Olivier, S. The evolution of direct effect in the EU: Stocktaking, problems, projections, International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2014, Vol. 12, Issue 1, pp. 165-188, available online at: Sebba, I. The Doctrine of Direct Effect: A Malignant Disease of Community Law. Legal Issues of Economic Integration, 1995, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 35à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"58. Footnotes Ilan Sebba, The Doctrine of Direct Effect: A Malignant Disease of Community Law. Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Vol. 22, Issue 2, 1995, p. 35. Van Gend en Loos, above n 2. Ibid, at [20]. Ibid, at [21]. NV Algemene Transporten Expeditie Onderneming van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen (Van Gend en Loos) [1963] ECR 1. Gerrit Betlem AndrÃÆ' © Nollkaemper, Giving Effect to Public International Law and European Community Law before Domestic Courts. A Comparative Analysis of the Practice of Consistent Interpretation, European Journal of International Law, 2003, Vol. 14, p. 569. Van Duyn v Home Office [1974] ECR 1337. Publico Ministero v Tullio Ratti [1979] ECR 1629, at para. 23. Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), Article 288. Commission v Italy [1973] ECR 101, at para. 17. Von Colson and Kamann v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen [1984] ECR 1891. R. Mastroianni, On the distinction between vertical and horizontal direct effect of derivatives: what role for the principle of equality?, EPL, 1999, Vol. 5, p. 417. Marleasing SA v La Commercial de Alimentacion SA [1990] ECR 1-4135 Von Colson, above n 8, at [3]. G. Betlem. The principle of indirect effect of community law, 1995, ERPL, Vol. 3, No. 1. CIA Security International SA v Signalson SA and Securitel Sprl [1996] ECR 1-2202. Foster and Others v British Gas plc [1990] ECR I-3313. Ibid. Publico Ministero v Tullio Ratti [1979] ECR 1629, at para. 23. Marshall v Southampton and South-West Hampshire Area Health Authority (Teaching) [1986] ECR 723. Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) [1976] ECR 455. Van Duyn, above n 8. Ibid. Defrenne, above n 22. Marshall, above n 21. Sophie Robin-Olivier, The evolution of direct effect in the EU: Stocktaking, problems, projections, International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2014, Vol. 12, Issue 1, available online at: Foster, above 18. Paul Craig and Grainne de Burca, EU Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (5th edition: Oxford University Press: 2011), p. 188. Van Gend en Loos, above n 2. Marshall, above n 21. Robin-Oliver, above n 26. Ibid. Case C-426/11 Alemo-Herron and others, July 18, 2013, unreported. Directive 2001/23 of March 12, 2001: approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the safeguarding of employees rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses, 2001 O.J. (L 016). Damian Chalmers, Gareth Davies and Giorgio Monti, European Union Law (2nd ed., Cambridge University Press: 2010), p. 288. Andre Nolkaemper, Revisiting Van Gend En Loos, Jean Monnet Working Paper 06/14, New York School of Law, 2014, available online at:, p. 5. Ibid, p. 6.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Importance Of Project Management Competencies And...

The purpose of this study is to analyze the importance of project management competencies to obtain a successful career in the field. The problems addressed in this analysis are to gain an understanding of the project management competencies needed for successful implementation in any industry given. The analysis contributes to research and practice in two ways. The first is the identification and reporting of project management competencies and their importance. Secondly, the analysis proposes a framework that would provide an organization with a system for recruitment, measuring performance, identifying training and development needs of individual employees, and rewarding effective performance for outstanding performers. The analysis†¦show more content†¦Consecutively, it could be defined as the process of achieving objectives by using the combined capabilities of project resources or assets. General management skills can be referred to as a basis for project management. General management is considered a repetitive process, and project management focuses on change and calls for different competencies than that of general management. Competence and Competency are often used interchangeably. Competent comes from the Latin root competere, which means â€Å"to be suitable† and the term is generally used to describe someone who is sufficiently skilled to perform a specified task or to fill a defined position (GAPPS, 2007). In order for any organization to thrive in this lifetime, there needs to be an implementation of project management across the board to be reliable and successful, which makes the profession of great importance. B. Problem Statement According to the Project Management Institute 45% of the projects are deemed failures in various organizations, but these statistics can be inaccurate due to the fact that most companies do not publicly address failures in projects. The main reason why organizations do not state their project failure statistics is because the companies are afraid to have a drop in their stocks, and understand the affect it can haveShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Project Management Competencies And Why They Are Important1324 Words   |  6 PagesThe purpose of this study is to analysis the importance of project management competencies to obtain a successful career in the field. The problems addressed in this analysis are to gain an understanding of the project management competencies needed for successful implementation in any industry given. The analysis contributes to research and practice in two ways. Firstly, I identified and report on project management competencies and wh y they are important. Secondly, the analysis proposes a frameworkRead MoreFinding The Right Project Managers1407 Words   |  6 Pagesexplains that â€Å"finding the right project managers begins with the organization’s definition of the role, and its project management processes. Most often companies look for project experience when evaluating new project managers, followed by communication skills. The generally described project manager competencies, such as project-specific expertise, problem-solving competence, leadership and social competence have to be complemented with entrepreneurial and project management competence.† In addition,Read MoreLeadership Competencies And Leadership Skills1477 Words   |  6 Pagescreativity. Leadership competencies can be used to effectively select, develop and promote leaders in an organization .The difference between Leadership Skill and leadership competency can explained as the required level of efficiency to perform a task a ssigned is known as skill whereas the quality to accomplish the same is called as competency. When creating leadership competencies certain factors are considered such as business strategies and future trends. To drive the use of competencies in selecting andRead Moreis3110 project1391 Words   |  6 PagesProject Project: Risk Management Plan Purpose This project provides an opportunity to apply the competencies gained in the units of this course to develop a risk management plan for a specific business problem related to an organization’s identification of an outdated plan. Required Source Information and Tools The following tools and resources that will be needed to complete this project: ï‚ § Course textbook ï‚ § Internet access for research ï‚ § Defense Logistics Agency: Learning ObjectivesRead MoreIntergrating the Basics1370 Words   |  6 Pagesrespect though it is German family owned company. Voith created a culture that values transparency, knowledge management, mentoring, coaching and process. The individual who attempt to hoard knowledge, relationships, or resources to attain job security are not be valued as key, bur are to be admonished as ineffective and deemed a liability (Mike Myatt, 2011). In organization has equal importance no doubt their task role differs from person to person. Giving priority to one employee and neglecting othersRead MoreThe Importance Of Planning For Disaster Response And How The Lack Of Planning1208 Words   |  5 Pages1) Describe the focus of the article and its relevance to project management. From a high level the focus of the article was the importance of planning for disaster response and how the lack of planning can have a serious negative impact on the effectiveness of providing relief to those in need. All of the information is relevant to project management in that providing disaster relief is a project much like any other project. The main differences are that it is more complex, requires immediateRead MoreCharacteristics of an Ideal Appraisal System1330 Words   |  6 Pagesdetails later to create a great appraisal form. First, Get top management actively involved. Without top management s commitment and visible support, no program can succeed. Top management must establish strategic plans, identify values and core competencies, appoint an appropriate Implementation Team, demonstrate the importance of performance management by being active participants in the process, and use appraisal results in management decisions. Second, establish the criteria for an ideal systemRead MoreVolkswagen1268 Words   |  6 Pagespriced cars, but also earned industry acknowledgement. The core competency of Volkswagen is structured to build customer loyalty. Although, Volkswagen suffered from erratic sales pattern when the company introduced a new model commonly called as the â€Å"Himalayas chart† due to its rise and falls (Austin, 2007).This was because of the management not dealing with situations proactively. This problem was mitigated soon through its competencies in strategizing and manufacturing potentials as well as the expansionRead MoreProject Management Design : Khan Transportation Essay1669 Words   |  7 PagesProgram Management Design Khan Transportation is the outcome of the acquisition and merger of three separate long haul trucking companies. The three separate companies have become three divisions inside of Khan Transportation which now owns about 3000 trucks and approximately 3,500 trailers. The owner (who is also the president) has placed the three chief executives from the separate companies into the roles of vice-presidents. Each is responsible for the respective division which was formerly hisRead MoreEthics And Public Service1559 Words   |  7 Pagesself-awareness of our ethics, beliefs and values. It is for reasons such as this that the organizations values must be inculcated all employees especially those in leadership positions. Focusing on the education of leaders in the fundamental competencies of ethics and public service will build the base for a strong ethical climate within the department. Further, this will assist the department in achieving the Secretary’s goal of indoctrinating DVA ethics throughout the organization. Therefore

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

sun chief autobiography notes Essay - 755 Words

Home was Oraibi, the oldest inhabited town in the US. Pueblos Near grand canyon Hopi Indians been there for 800 years Don born 1890 Population 1000 Descendents from cliff dwellers Speak shoshonean Men were short 5-4 Hopi means peaceful people Kiva – underground religious chamber Rain in summer No government or surpreme chief The mans sisters son succeeds Village chief always happy Crier chief makes public decisions Don sun hill kiva group Exogamous and matriliniel Old spider woman who is the salt woman with grandsons Twin gods Corn mother and corn maiden gods Ceremonies are complicated Katcinas- ancestrial spirits Buffalo, butterfly, and eagle dances serious Wowochim ceremony November Soyal- December- don is in it Powamu- feb July†¦show more content†¦ght May 1906 went to rockyford, Colorado Worked 12 hour days for 15c an hour Sept 8 the friendlies were driving the hostilies out Some went to jail at fort wingate In November got news to go to a school in California , riverside He then wanted to be a white man He fell in love with lousie and kept giving her money He caught pneumonia In the dream he chose the wide path Masau’u was chasing him with a giant club Ollie queen is his new best girl lol Stayed in school till 1908 First boat ride in long beach cali Sex with mettie Katcinas cant drink water until midday Had sex with jane but doesn’t want to be with her wants to be with metti Had sex with eva He then fell in love with elsie who was mettie best friend and wants to marry elsie Married mettie Ira and don initiated into the wowochim in November Turn into a man after wowochim ceremony Had sex with eulla Didn’t marry mettie because her mom would be mad since they were related Washed heads with yucca suds Dons new name was Talayesva aka Sitting Tassel The man ceremony is 8 days long He was near 20 when he became a man Part of the Keles Fought his father and placed dirt into his mouth Natsi- twelve arrows or spearheads tied to a stick Hawk priest screeched Yunyaa means come in- women cried out to the hawk priest Hihikispi- something to breathe upon Named tanackmainewa after the soyal ceremony – means shining feathers of the road runner Bow height- awotabi When he became a man he decided not to follow jesus Christ anymoreShow MoreRelatedExploration Of Good And Evil In Rashomon1285 Words   |  6 Pages reflected in Kurosawa’s use of light and dark. The interplay of murk, sunlight and shadow tells the tale. In much the same way light was used by William Shakespeare, (think witches and storms as MacBeth opens; think Romeo describing Juliet as the sun), Kurosawa punctuates Rashomon with a sophisticated imagining of light. Elemental and easily understood, the eye enjoys an impressionist inspiration, while the unconscious mind absorbs the director’s tone and intent in richly woven mise-en-scà ¨ne throughRead MoreMy People the Sioux Essay1666 Words   |  7 Pagesknown as Plenty Kill, portrays the dramatic and traumatic changes about the Sioux throughout their traditional way of life. As a young boy growing up, he experienced many of these hardships first hand between his people and the whites. This autobiography is quite valuable as it helps allow us to envision what really happened in the battling times of the Indians. Luther stated this quote, which to me, is unforgettable and very well said. It reads: We did not think of the great open plainsRead MoreEnglish Language Questions: Bankrupt Man2749 Words   |  11 Pagesand in a note, with embossed letterhead, he challenges us to meet him on West Main Street, by the corner of the Corn Exchange, under the iron statue of Cyrus Shenanigan, the great Civil War profiteer. We accept the challenge. We experience butterflies in the stomach. We go look at our face in the mirror. It is craven and shrivelled, embittered by ungenerous thoughts. Comes the dawn. Without parked cars, West Main Street seems immensely wide. The bankrupt man’s shoulders eclipse the sun. He takesRead MoreSummary Of Louis Macneice s Poetry Essay2317 Words   |  10 Pagesuncertainty of her return, may have been the chief factor which caused Louis’s memories of childhood to be so sad and sometimes so bitter† (Terrence, 1970). This can be seen throughout his poetry as a common theme throughout is that of despair and isolation, instilling a clear feel ing of melancholy for the reader. As his childhood had such a huge effect on his writing I will be focusing solely on that throughout my assignment. The poem ‘Autobiography’ is a prime example of how MacNeice’s childhoodRead MoreEssay on Sexuality/Textuality in Tristram Shandy8792 Words   |  36 Pagesinformation about JSTOR, please contact . Rice University is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. This content downloaded on Sun, 16 Dec 2012 06:30:48 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions SEL 25 (1985) ISSN 0039-3657 Sexuality/Textuality in TristramShandy DENNIS W. ALLEN Part narrative and part digression, part sentiment and part satire, TristramShandyisRead MoreExtensive Reader4330 Words   |  18 Pagesdid so the previous year on the 8th of April when he left for Bermuda. He needed a dollar in change to pay his taxi. When Todd took the dollar from the author, the latter felt that he meant to pay for it. After Todd had gone to Bermuda, he sent a note to the author about the temperature prevailed there. But Leacock thought that he had sent the dollar. When Todd came back after three weeks, the author met him at the train. Leacock suggested that they would take a taxi. Todd refused and they walkedRead MoreThe Beatles Essay2958 Words   |  12 Pagesrawness of the Beatles’ performing talent, which six months earlier had made Decca reject them, appealed to Martin, although he was then doubtful of their song-writing. Replacing Best with Starr on drums, he encouraged Lennon and McCartney, the group’s chief composers, to write with more concentration, pointing out to them simple structural devices such as commencing with the chorus (the main selling-point of most pop songs). Their second release, Please Please Me, rose to number one in the British singlesRead MoreIndian National Army and Its Role in Independence Struggle7239 Words   |  29 Pagesconsequences with regard to their impact on the Indian Army of a free India. Mode of Citation A uniform mode of citation has been employed throughout this paper. Sources The researcher has completely depended on the secondary sources such as autobiographies, journal articles and campaign accounts of Subhash Chandra Bose and INA officers. The only primary materials used are the speeches of Subhash Chandra Bose and the letters exchanged by the INA officers. 4 Research Questions ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · What wasRead MoreMelting Pot6314 Words   |  26 Pageswho, in the imperfect light of this world, are seeking, through different avenues, to reach the gate of heaven. Without money and without price, it throws open its doors, and spreads its table of bounty, for all the children of the State. Like the sun, it shines, not only upon the good, but upon the evil, that they may become good; and like the rain, its blessings descend, not only upon the just, but upon the unjust, that their injustice may depart from them and be known no more. This floweryRead MoreReview Of Charlotte Bronte s Jane Eyre 10879 Words   |  44 PagesSummer Reading Notes Jane Eyre Background of author Name: Charlotte Bronte Birth/Death: April 21, 1816 to March 31,1855 Facts that connect: Mr. Brocklehurst is based off the Reverend Carus Wilson, the man who ran Cowan Bridge. Bronte lost two of her sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, to tuberculosis at Cowan Bridge. Bronte s brother, Patrick, became addicted to drugs and alcohol before he died. Similarities: She, along with her three sisters, was sent to the Clergy Daughters School at Cowan Bridge

AZTEC CIVILIZATION Essay Example For Students

AZTEC CIVILIZATION Essay AZTEC CIVILIZATIONThe center of the Aztec civilization was the Valley of Mexico, a huge, oval basin about 7,500 feet above sea level. The Aztecs were formed after the Toltec civilization occurred when hundreds of civilians came towards Lake Texcoco. In the swamplands there was only one piece of land to farm on and it was totally surrounded by more marshes. The Aztec families somehow converted these disadvantages to a mighty empire known as the Aztec Empire. People say the empire was partially formed by a deeply believed legend. As the legend went, it said that Aztec people would create an empire in a swampy place where they would see an eagle eating a snake, while perched on a cactus, which was growing out of a rock in the swamplands. This is what priests claimed they saw when entering the new land. By the year 1325 their capital city was finished. They called it Tenochtitlan. In the capital city, aqueducts were constructed, bridges were built, and chinapas were made. Chinapas were little islands formed by pilled up mud. On these chinapas Aztecs grew their food. The Aztec Empire included many cities and towns, especially in the Valley of Mexico. The early settlers built log rafts, then covered them with mud and planted seeds to create roots and develop more solid land for building homes in this marshy land. Canals were also cut out through the marsh so that a typical Aztec home had its back to a canal with a canoe tied at the door. In the early 1400s, Tenochtitlan joined with Texcoco and Tlacopan, two other major cities in the Valley of Mexico. Tenochtitlan became the most powerful member of the alliance. Montezuma I ruled from 1440 to 1469 and conquered large areas to the east and to the south. Montezumas successors expanded the empire until it extended between what is now Guatemala and the Mexican State of San Luis Potosi. Montezuma II became emperor in 1502 when the Aztec Empire was at the height of its power. In 1519, the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes landed on the East Coast of Mexico and marched inland to Tenochtitlan. The Spaniards were joined by many of the Indians who were conquered and forced to pay high taxes to the emperor. Montezuma did not oppose Cortes because he thought that he was the God Quetzalcoatl. An Aztec legend said that Quetzalcoatl was driven away by another rival god and had sailed across the sea and would return some day. His return was predicted to come in the year Ce Acatl on the Aztec Calendar. This corresponded to the year 1519. Due to this prediction, Montezuma II thought Quetzalcoatl had returned when Cortes and his troops invaded. He did not resist and was taken prisoner by Cortes and his troops. In 1520, the Aztecs rebelled and drove the Spaniards from Tenochtitlan, but Montezuma II was killed in the battle. Cortes reorganized his troops and resurged into the city. Montezumas successor, Cuauhtmoc, surrendered in August of 1520. The Spaniards, being strong Christians, felt it was their duty to wipe out the temples and all other traces of the Aztec religion. They destroyed Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City on the ruins. However, archaeologists have excavated a few sites and have uncovered many remnants of this society. Language: The Aztec spoke a language called Nahuatl (pronounced NAH waht l). It belongs to a large group of Indian languages, which also include the languages spoken by the Comanche, Pima, Shoshone and other tribes of western North America. The Aztec used pictographs to communicate through writing. Some of the pictures symbolized ideas and others represented the sounds of the syllables. Food: The principal food of the Aztec was a thin cornmeal pancake called a tlaxcalli. .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .postImageUrl , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:hover , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:visited , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:active { border:0!important; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:active , .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua1da23206d17cf88335f9c3e323ecb8e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Reconstruction After Civil War Essay (In Spanish, it is called a tortilla.) They used the tlaxcallis to scoop up foods while they ate or they wrapped the foods in the tlaxcalli to form what is now known as a taco. They hunted for most of the meat in their diet and the chief game animals were deer, rabbits, ducks and geese. The only animals they raised for meat were turkeys, rabbits, and dogs. Arts and Crafts: The Aztec sculptures, which adorned their temples and other buildings, were among the most elaborate in all of the Americas. Their purpose was to please the gods and they attempted to do that in everything they did. Many of the sculptures reflected their perception of their gods and how they interacted in their lives. The most famous surviving Aztec sculpture is the large circular Calendar Stone, which represents the Aztec universe. Religion: Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses, each of whom ruled one or more human activities or aspects of nature. The people had many agricultural gods because their culture was based heavily on farming. The Aztecs made many sacrifices to their gods. When victims reached the altar they were stretched across a sacrificial stone. A priest with an obsidian knife cut open the victims chest and tore out his heart. The heart was placed in a bowl called a chacmool. This heart was used as an offer to the gods. If they were in dire need, a warrior would be sacrificed, but for any other sacrifice a normal person would be deemed sufficient. It was a great honor to be chosen for a sacrifice to the gods. The Aztec held many religious ceremonies to ensure good crops by winning the favor of the gods and then to thank them for the harvest. Every 52 years, the Aztec held a great celebration called the Binding up of the Years. Prior to the celebration, the people would let their hearth fires go out and then re-light them from the new fire of the celebration and feast. A partial list of the Aztec gods: CENTEOTL, The corn god. COATLICUE, She of the Serpent Skirt. EHECATL, The god of wind. HUEHUETEOTL, The fire god. HUITZILOPOCHTLI, The war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan. MICTLANTECUHTLE, The god of the dead. OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL, They created all life in the world. QUETZALCOATL, The god of civilization and learning. TEZCATLIPOCA, The god of Night and Sorcery. TLALOC, The rain god. TONATIUH, The sun god. TONANTZIN, The honored grandmother. XILONEN, Young maize ear, Maize represents a chief staple of the Aztecs. XIPE TOTEC, The god of springtime and re-growth. Aztec dances: The Aztec Dance is known for its special way of expressing reverence and prayer to the supernatural gods of the sun, earth, sky, and water. Originally, the resources accessible to the native Indians were limited, yet they were able to create lively music with the howling of the sea conch, and with rhythms produced by drums and by dried seeds which were usually tied to the feet of the dancers. Summary: Overall, I feel that the Aztec civilization was very advanced. It had a very complex structure in which there were lower class, middle class and upper class peoples. They had a good system of transportation and irrigation through the use of canals. They had a strong warfare system, which was seen by their conquering of many lands. They also had their own language, and their own mathematical system. Their scholars were also very intelligent; they had developed their own system of time measurement and a calendar system that was very accurate.

Monday, April 20, 2020


Approaches to Political Development: (Nation-State Building in Southern Sudan) Introduction Political matters form an integral part of human life and almost every country across the world has its own political policies and systems controlling its national development agendas (Kingsbury 2007). Perhaps one of the most recently formed African nations is the Republic of Southern Sudan that became the world’s newest county after gaining independence after it split from the north following four decades of massive civil war (Maxwell et al. 2012).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nation-State Building in Southern Sudan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since then, the Republic of Southern Sudan has been living under the consequences of the long civil conflict that has affected citizens’ livelihood, essential services, and even social protection. As a young nation, Southern Sudan currently has the best opportu nity to develop a peaceful nation and improve the lives of all its citizens (Lehtinen 2001). Since the four-decade war altered socio-political structures and relations, the Southern Sudan government kick-started the nation-building process immediately with several initiatives emerging. Hitherto, the country could not make any meaningful developments due to lack of freedom as the two elements intertwine (Sen 1997). This essay seeks to investigate the main criteria for political development and assess the extent of its implementation as it has applied in South Sudan. Sudan as a Nation-State: Efforts of Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) Against background marred by civil war uncertainties that hampered almost every little human aspect in Southern Sudan, the devastated livelihood, political difficulties, and the fragmented social order required urgent recovery. The provision of humanitarian aid and peace consolidation and stability initiatives were essential to restore Southern Sudan to st able human civilisation. Economic and political restoration initiatives started during the prevalence of the civil war under a coalition arrangement that involved the political party, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), and a humanitarian program known as Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) (Maxwell et al. 2012). The Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) is a consortium of humanitarian organisations including the World Health Organisation (WHO), the UN Development Program (UNDP), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Food Program (WFP) among other humanitarian organisations (Lehtinen 2001). Over several years since its emergence in the 1990s, the OLS has continued to play an essential role in enhancing people’s livelihood, political, and social reform through humanitarian support. Notwithstanding the notion that western nations use humanitarian support to conquer political dimensions and plant their leadership agendas, the incumbent Southern Sudan government should be commended, as it has stood firm in supporting international aid. As Taylor-Robinson (2002) postulates, â€Å"It is unusual for an established government to allow international aid to the inhabitants of rebel-held areas, but the Sudanese government, although much criticised in the Western press, is an exception† (p. 49).Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the support of authorities in Khartoum, Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), which is a UN-sponsored organisation, has managed to deploy diplomatic and logistic support to Southern Sudan (Operation Lifeline Sudan 2002). Responsible for coordinating several human developments, including restoration of war distorted socio-political structures and relations, OLS has become an effective governance organisation as it has demonstrated considerable political impartiality (Ta ylor-Robinson 2002). The OLS has dutifully provided diplomatic cover and operational support for the underway humanitarian and emergency food support, including providing air transportation and protection for NGO operations. The presence of compassionate organisations has enabled the development of strategies and support to the Sudanese affected by the civil war and especially those residing in warring and rebel-held regions. As the political environment of Southern Sudan remained constantly tensional following the enduring civil war due to lack of proper political representation, economic exploitations, and revolutions against marginalisation of communities, OLS continuously played an essential socio-political function. Political rivalry in Southern Sudan was commencing despite the separation with Northern Sudan and OLS intervention has performed a vital political responsibility. According to Ashamu (2010), the cornerstone to political development currently witnessed in Southern Su dan entails the involvement of the OLS in tripartite agreements with other two important actors, viz. the Southern Sudanese government, which is commonly known as Government of South Sudan (GOSS), and the state government. Before the separation of Northern Sudan from Southern Sudan, the two-state governments (South Sudan and North Sudan) with equal political, social, and economic autonomy developed under the same National government (Sudan). The Nation-State Political development in Southern Sudan The terrible and devastating civil war in Sudan led to destruction of social-political structures and relations. The war-induced poverty, displaced populations, weakened kinship and dismantled community ties (Macrae et al. 1997). The civil war that existed from 1983 to 2005 killed approximately 2 million South Sudanese and displaced over 4 million people.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nation-State Building in Southern Sudan specifically for you for only $ 16.05 $11/page Learn More Subsequently, the war deteriorated traditional authorities, which were thus exposed to aggression, intimidation, and manipulation by the armed groups and Government of Sudan (GOS). The war ended in 2005 when the GOS and SPLM/A signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). This move gave a new wave of hope and anxiety to the South Sudanese whose primary war intent was to struggle in defending the customs, religions, languages, and communal property against Arabic and Islamic partial political exploitation. The signing of the CPA enabled a significant shift of external agencies from barely providing humanitarian aid to the longer-term development initiatives. The formation of state government and GOSS emerged from here when national and state governments developed. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) Perhaps the main integral part of the Sudanese history is the reaching of consensus between the two governments to build everlasting peace through separation of the North and South Sudan. The CPA agreement comprised provisions that stipulated interventions of separating the religion and the state, referendum for secession, a separate army designed for the South, and an everlasting globally monitored peace agreement. Under the CPA, the agreement would delineate the 1956 border accord, religious, and ethnic diversity would be defended, joint military units would be deployed to safeguard territories, both South and North would have State-wide agreements and legislative chambers, and all protocols on power-sharing would be observed. Both signatories in this agreement recognised that violence and conflict are significant causes of tragic human loss and destruction of infrastructure. Particularly, the CPA mechanism wanted to address the source of conflict through establishing a permanent framework that aimed at providing governance in sharing power and wealth in Southern Sudan. Nation-state Political strategy implementation Immedia tely after reaching a concession to develop the government through two-state power divisions into national and state governments, state-building programs and initiatives started to enhance government capacity, strengthen its institutions, and improve the legitimacy of the Southern Sudan government (Cook Moro 2012). Under the agreeable conditions, the new nation of Southern Sudan was bound to combine the institutional and governance mechanisms that grew during the CPA interim era. The state-building process of the Southern Sudan entailed endogenous process of strengthening reciprocal relations that involved multiple national stakeholders negotiating and transforming political processes (Fukuyama 2004).Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The joint government approach involved shared government responsibilities between the Government of South Sudan (GOSS) and the Government of National Unity (GNU). Despite possessing different responsibilities as stipulated in the national regulations about the levels of government in the Southern Sudan, LeRiche and Arnold (2012) affirm that the two governments have shared vision and responsibilities in political settlements, conflict resolution, facilitating economic development, and other political processes that enable positive state-society relations including security and laws. From the pre-colonial regime of Sudan, the Egyptian-British rule in the 1956 was characterised by the element of centralisation of essential resources and political power in Khartoum and the neighbouring part of the Northern regions of Sudan (LeRiche Arnold 2004). Despite being fully independent, creating the rule of law and a justice system to govern essential activities of the state government and the national government processes were constrained by limited government capacity. The signing of the CPA has since then forced GOSS to undertake the process of developing laws and regulations that reflect the values and awareness of impartiality of the Southern Sudanese (Akongdit 2013). As an immediate mechanism for consolidating the national identity, military laws, international humanitarian laws, and human rights laws were key influences in developing the interim Constitution of Southern Sudan (Cook Moro 2012). Through their constitutional development legitimacy, GOSS has been working to clarify border issues and related situations through the ascertainment of legislations laws and customary regulations. Advances in political development (GOSS GONU) The signing of the CPA national accord between the Southern Sudanese and the northern Sudanese marked an important era when each of the nations gained nation autonomy. Southern Sudan is quickly recovering from the civil aftermath throu gh fixing important legislative and executive laws. Maxwell et al. (2012) assert, â€Å"One of the strengths of customary law is its ability to be adapted to a particular case in a particular context; it is not a fixed body of law but is constantly evolving and adapting† (p.13). Essential issues in the nation-state cooperation have become eminent in the Southern part of Sudan, which has demonstrated mature leadership through national democratisation following effective autonomy mandated by the State constitution (National Election Commission 2011). As their fellow counterparts in the North, under the tyrannical leadership of president Al-Bashir, continue lamenting about the lack of collaboration between the government and the humanitarian groups, donors in the South Sudan are working closely with GOSS (National Election Commission 2011). Recently observed is the influx of supportive initiatives. The interim constitution of the Southern Sudan has been paramount in the stabilis ation of political reforms anticipated by the Sudanese nationalists with democratic principles heavily observed. Under the stipulation of the CPA accord, the GOSS serves as an independent state under the GONU (Athorbei 2011). According to the interim constitution, the Government of Southern Sudan bears several responsibilities as an independent state. Under the constitutional mandate, the government of Southern Sudan consists of legislative, executive, and judicial duties and all functions are in accordance with the interim constitution (Akongdit 2013). Southern Sudan would exercise its political powers under the stipulations of the interim constitution while at the same time respecting the responsibilities accorded to the Government of National Unity. Several advances in socio-political development have emerged prior to the peace accord and the interim constitution (Akongdit 2013). With the support of the Department for International Development (DFID) country plan, the GOSS is aid ing in improving political approaches, especially towards restoration of peace and economic growth. Under the diplomatic governance spurred by the interim constitution, the GOSS has responsibilities in protecting the stipulations of the constitution including the bill of rights that constitute social justice, peace, equality, and democracy (Maxwell et al. 2012). More specifically, the GOSS considers the hope of the Southern Sudanese citizens in finding comprehensive solution that would address the social and economic deterioration in the country. This goal is being pursued mainly through replacing antagonism with political, social, and economic justice that recognises human and political rights of all the Southern Sudanese. The GOSS has the political responsibility of providing, in accordance with the interim constitution, diplomatic and peace negotiations, including referendum arrangements between the North and South Sudan (Maxwell et al. 2012). The GOSS is mandated responsibly to undertake negotiations with armed dissidents and provide maximum cooperation towards reconciliation and peace conferences necessitated by NGOs, development partners, as well as religious and traditional leaders (Kingsbury 2007). The GOSS has the political mandate to develop constitutions including the Peace Commission, institutions such as the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly (SSLA), and other government institutions that support diplomatic governance. Perceived significance of political development in Southern Sudan Since the advent of the interim constitution and the CPA peace accord, the Republic of South Sudan has witnessed substantial changes in political, social, and economic advancement despite relying too much on humanitarian support (Maxwell et al. 2012). Poverty, as a multi-dimensional phenomenon, has been part of the Southern Sudanese where human capital, poor health facilities, inadequate housing infrastructure, low and deprived national economic issues have become co mmon. However, giving each country its political autonomy and bringing the former combatants into the GONU has led to significant advancement in socio-political developments in Southern Sudan (Cook Moro 2012). Cases of war, political aggression, and human social abuses, including human insecurity concerns, have reduced considerably following the advent of the CPA strategies that aided the development of the interim constitution. The passionate cooperation accorded to the development agencies has led to significant improvement of government institutions, including educational associations and health organisations, among others (Cook Moro 2012). Politically, the levels of democracy have developed and subsequently improved where inclusivity in governance is becoming eminent. Here is Southern Sudan’s vision 2040: â€Å"By 2040, we aspire to build an exemplary nation: a nation that is educated and informed; prosperous, productive and innovative; compassionate and tolerant; free , just and peaceful; democratic and accountable; safe, secure and healthy; and united and proud† (Athorbei 2011, p.41) Conclusion Southern Sudan is the world’s newly independent country that became independent following the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed by the signatories of the Northern and Southern Sudan political combatants. Under the support of the Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), which was a United Nations’ (UN) umbrella organisation, the two combatants reached a peaceful ceasefire agreement that led to the end of a four-decade civil war. Southern Sudan became a decentralised nation with three levels of governments under the interim constitution that produced two autonomous political states (North and South Sudan). The nation-state government, which aimed at separating the Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan, has enabled substantial political developments that include making Southern Sudan an autonomous political state that shares limited econ omic resources with its counterparts. The Southern Sudanese have rigorously engaged in state-building to enhance capacity, governmental institutions, and legitimacy of the state of South Sudan. Politically, through the support of development agencies, the GOSS, under the CPA accord, is responsible for ensuring diplomatic and peace negotiations, reconciliation efforts, and implementation of the interim constitution. Reference List Akongdit, A. 2013, Impact of Political Stability on Economic Development: Case of South Sudan, Author House, London. Athorbei, D. 2011, Realising freedom, equality, justice, peace and prosperity for all. South Sudan Development Plan.  Web. Cook, T. Moro, L. 2012, Governing South Sudan: Opinions of South Sudanese on a Government, National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, Washington, D.C. Fukuyama, F. 2004, State Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. Kingsbury, D. 2007, Political Developm ent, Rutledge, New York. Lehtinen, T. 2001, The European Union’s Political and Development Response to Sudan.  Web. LeRiche, M. Arnold, M. 2012, South Sudan: From Revolution to Independence, Hurst Publishers, London. Macrae, J., Jaspars, S., Duffield, M., Bradbury, M. Johnson, D. 1997, ‘Conflict, the continuum and chronic emergencies: a critical analysis of the scope for linking relief, rehabilitation and development planning in Sudan’, Disasters, vol. 21 no. 1, pp: 223–43. Maxwell, D., Gelsdorf, K. Santschi, M. 2012, Livelihoods, basic services and social protection in South Sudan. Web. National Election Commission: Factsheet: Levels of Government in Sudan and how they function 2011.  Web. Operation Lifeline Sudan: Southern Sector Annual Report 2002. Web. Sen, Amartya, 1999, Development as Freedom, Alfred A Knopf, New York. Taylor-Robinson, T. 2002, ‘Operation Lifeline Sudan’, Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 28 no.1, pp. 49-51. This essay on Nation-State Building in Southern Sudan was written and submitted by user Br0therh00d0fEv1lMutants to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Manuel Quezon of the Philippines

Manuel Quezon of the Philippines Manuel Quezon is generally considered the second president of the Philippines, even though he was the first to head the Commonwealth of the Philippines under American administration, serving from 1935 to 1944.  Emilio Aguinaldo, who had served in 1899-1901 during the Philippine-American War, is usually called the first president. Quezon was from an elite mestizo family from the east coast of Luzon. His privileged background did not insulate him from tragedy, hardship, and exile, however. Early Life Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina was born on August 19, 1878, in Baler, now in Aurora Province. (The province is actually named after Quezons wife.) His parents were Spanish colonial army officer Lucio Quezon and primary school teacher Maria Dolores Molina. Of mixed Filipino and Spanish ancestry, in the racially segregated Spanish Philippines, the Quezon family were considered blancos or whites, which afforded them more freedom and higher social status than purely Filipino or Chinese people enjoyed. When Manuel was nine years old, his parents sent him to school in Manila, about 240 kilometers (150 miles) away from Baler. He would remain there through university; he studied law at the University of Santo Tomas  but did not graduate. In 1898, when Manuel was 20, his father and brother were accosted and murdered along the road from Nueva Ecija to Baler. The motive may have been simply robbery, but it is likely that they were targeted for their support of the colonial Spanish government against the Filipino nationalists in the independence struggle. Entry into Politics In 1899, after the US defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War and seized the Philippines, Manuel Quezon joined Emilio Aguinaldos guerrilla army in its fight against the Americans. He was accused a short time later of murdering an American prisoner of war, and was imprisoned for six months, but was cleared of the crime for lack of evidence. Despite all of that, Quezon soon began to rise in political prominence under the American regime. He passed the bar exam in 1903 and went to work as a surveyor and clerk.  In 1904, Quezon met a young Lieutenant Douglas MacArthur; the two would become close friends in the 1920s and 1930s. The newly-minted lawyer became a prosecutor in Mindoro in 1905  and then was elected governor of Tayabas the following year. In 1906, the same year he became governor, Manuel Quezon founded the Nacionalista Party with his friend Sergio Osmena. It would be the leading political party in the Philippines for years to come. The following year, he was elected to the inaugural Philippine Assembly, later renamed the House of Representatives. There, he chaired the appropriations committee and served as majority leader. Quezon moved to the United States for the first time in 1909, serving as one of two resident commissioners to the US House of Representatives. The Philippines commissioners could observe and lobby the US House  but were non-voting members. Quezon pressed his American counterparts to pass the Philippine Autonomy Act, which became law in 1916, the same year that he returned to Manila. Back in the Philippines, Quezon was elected to the Senate, where he would serve for the next 19 years until 1935. He was selected as the first President of the Senate  and continued in that role throughout his Senate career. In 1918, he married his first cousin, Aurora Aragon Quezon; the couple would have four children. Aurora would become famous for her commitment to humanitarian causes. Tragically, she and their eldest daughter were assassinated in 1949. Presidency In 1935, Manuel Quezon headed a Filipino delegation to the United States to witness US President Franklin Roosevelts signing of a new constitution for the Philippines, granting it semi-autonomous commonwealth status. Full independence was supposed to follow in 1946.   Quezon returned to Manila and won the first national presidential election in the Philippines as the Nacionalista Party candidate. He handily defeated Emilio Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay, taking 68% of the vote.   As president, Quezon implemented a number of new policies for the country. He was very concerned with social justice, instituting a minimum wage, an eight-hour workday, the provision of public defenders for indigent defendants in court, and the redistribution of agricultural land to tenant farmers. He sponsored the building of new schools across the country, and promoted womens suffrage; as a result, women got the vote in 1937. President Quezon also established Tagalog as the national language of the Philippines, alongside English. Meanwhile, however, the Japanese had invaded China in 1937 and started the Second Sino-Japanese War, which would lead to World War II in Asia. President Quezon kept a wary eye on Japan, which seemed likely to target the Philippines soon in its expansionist mood. He also opened the Philippines to Jewish refugees from Europe, who were fleeing increasing Nazi oppression in the period between 1937 and 1941. This saved about 2,500 people from the Holocaust. Although Quezons old friend, now-General Douglas MacArthur, was assembling a defense force for the Philippines, Quezon decided to visit Tokyo in June of 1938. While there, he tried to negotiate a secret mutual non-aggression pact with the Japanese Empire. MacArthur learned of Quezons unsuccessful negotiation, and relations temporarily soured between the two. In 1941, a national plebiscite amended the constitution to allow presidents to serve two four-year terms rather than a single six-year term. As a result, President Quezon was able to run for re-election. He won the November  1941 poll with almost 82% of the vote over Senator Juan Sumulong. World War II On December 8, 1941, the day after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Japanese forces invaded the Philippines.  President Quezon and other top government officials had to evacuate to Corregidor along with General MacArthur.  He fled the island in a submarine, moving on to Mindanao, then Australia, and finally the United States.  Quezon set up a government in exile in Washington D.C.   During his exile, Manuel Quezon lobbied the US Congress to send American troops back into the Philippines.  He exhorted them to Remember Bataan, in reference to the infamous Bataan Death March.  However, the Filipino president did not survive to see his old friend, General MacArthur, make good on his promise to return to the Philippines. President Quezon suffered from tuberculosis.  During his years in exile in the US, his condition steadily worsened until he was forced to move to a cure cottage in Saranac Lake, New York.  He died there on August 1, 1944.  Manuel Quezon was originally buried in Arlington National Cemetery, but his remains were moved to Manila after the war was over.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Nature or nurture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nature or nurture - Essay Example Although at present, the scientific community has tipped the scale towards ‘nature’, an ongoing debate argues that environment is the main factor influencing gender identities of people. This conclusion is drawn from the work of Michael Kimmel, a sociologist who teaches at the University of New York at Stony Brook. Apart from having written on gender in general and men in particular, in â€Å"‘Bros before Hos’: The Guy Code†, Kimmel deals specifically with issues of masculinity. He believes that young men are socialized into their groups and gain ideas of masculinity from the surroundings around them. Studies which have been conducted by James O’Neill, developmental psychologist at the University of Connecticut and social psychologist, Joseph Pleck have shown how little the socializing influences on boys have changed over the years. Kimmel points out how men conform to masculizing influences and perceived masculine behavior because they are anx ious to secure the approval of other men. In the words of playwright David Mamet, women are perceived have such a â€Å"low place on the social ladder of this country that its useless to define yourself in terms of a woman†. Boys tend to identify with their fathers and older male peers and adopt behavioral patterns considered to be â€Å"masculine† in order to win the approval of other men. Freud has put forward the view that an essential part of the process of defining male gender identify is the separation of a boy from his mother and close identification with his father instead. Masculinity is thus achieved through â€Å"repudiation, disassociation and then identification.† To support this argument, psychologists such as Michael Thompson, James Gabarrino and Dan Kindlon also reiterate that a culture of cruelty is created wherein young boys are actively discouraged from crying or showing their emotions. Applying Pollack’s views, a young boy would be pus hed through the influences from other males in his surrounding environment to actively develop the â€Å"mask of masculinity, which is essentially a stoic, unemotional front wherein denying their own emotional needs forms an essential part of framing of gender identity of the boys. In contrast with Kimmel, Hanna Rosin is less certain about the impact of socializing influences and the environment on the development of gender identity. In the â€Å"A Boy’ Life†, Rosin points to the fact that the difficulties transgender children experience, appear to have been exacerbated by parental indulgence. These children take on role-playing at a very early age – usually the role of the opposite sex – and persist with it. The writer also maps the recent preoccupation with biology in the area of human identity and the theories of gender as a social construct. Both Rosin and Kimmel offer a disturbing view of the motivation of peers, parents, communities and professiona ls. These people involved in the negotiation of gender identities, in which a mix of fear of rejection, a need for normalcy and peer approval, and professional ambition leads to a single-minded consideration. Parents, driven by fear of their children’s rejection by society and constant social affirmation